She began her presentation with a short film of Greenpeace actions. Over the years she has been a fundraiser, an active supporter, a legal support worker, a non-violence trainer, an activist and climber, and a UK Board member.
Greenpeace started in Canada in 1971 to protest against US nuclear testing off the coast of Alaska. They hired a boat to try to stop it happening and renamed the boat Greenpeace. They got close to the test site but were unable to prevent that test. A few years later the US was committed to non-testing. Another early campaign was against Russian whaling.
To prevent the culling of seal pups, they sprayed green dye on the pups to reduce the value of the pelts. The publicity resulted in Greenpeace offices springing up all over the place and David MacTaggart had the vision to turn it into a global organisation, with an International Headquarters based in Amsterdam, and National and Regional Offices in 50 countries. They also have a Science Laboratory for research, a Marine division with three ships, a hot-air balloon and a helicopter. There are some 1,000 to 2,000 paid employees and many more unpaid supporters.
In the 1970s they developed a set of core values: Bearing witness (like the Quakers), Non-violence, Personal action, Internationalism, and Independence financially from corporations or governments. Collectively these values confer an obligation to confront and take action against activities that are perceived to be against the common good regardless of who is responsible.
Their methodology involves: Targeting Power (so they protest against the right people), Investigation and research (e.g. find out who is vulnerable to pressure in the supply chain for timber), Seeking Solutions and using a Range of Techniques of Persuasion.
Investigations often start with Google Earth. Photos are sometimes taken from aeroplanes or people on the ground. They sometimes trap politicians by pretending to be friendly companies.
When they were opposing the third Heathrow runway they adopted the approach of supporting HS2 with a banner saying YES! P.S.GORDON NO NEED FOR THAT THIRD RUNWAY at St. Pancras Station. They also set up booths with members dressed as air stewards handing out free rail tickets.
Lots of talk takes place before actions are initiated. There is a lot of behind the scenes work in companies who are often keen to act before their reputation is damaged. They also use courts, planning enquiries and Judicial Review. Public engagement is important with stalls at carnivals etc. Sometimes company adverts are changed into spoof adverts eg with orang-utans shown in bikinis.
Direct Communications often work. To draw attention to dolphins killed by fishing trawlers, dead dolphins were dumped on the doorstep of the French Embassy. Morrison’s were persuaded to get fish from sustainable sources, and McDonald’s did a complete reversal and became champions of the rainforest. To draw attention to fracking it was suggested they drill outside George Osborne’s constituency office. A small protest against the Brazil State Visit to the UK got massive coverage in Brazil and helped to protect the rain forest.
On the whole companies are easier to persuade than governments because of the bottom line.
Successes claimed include:
- 1972 – US abandons nuclear testing
- !982 – Moratorium on whaling
- 1989 – Ban on high seas large-scale driftnets
- 1991 – 50 year ban on mineral exploitation in Antarctica
- 1993 – Ban on dumping radioactive & industrial waste at sea
- 1994 – Antarctic whale sanctuary approved
- 1996 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
- 1998 – Ban on dumping of offshore installations at sea
- 2001 UN ban on Persistent organic pollutants
- Hundreds of smaller victories